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		Module 4
Promoting Change and Encouraging
Adaptability
Using Power Ethically and Effectively
Championing and Selling New Ideas
Fueling and Fostering Innovation
Negotiation Agreement and Commitment
Implementing and Sustaining Change
Open Systems Model 
 Innovator & Broker Roles
Criteria of Effectiveness
Adaptability, external support
Means-ends theory
Continual adaptation and innovation lead to acquiring and maintaining external resources
Action Imperative
Create
Emphasis
Political adaptation, creative problem solving, innovation, change management
Climate
Innovative, flexible
Culture
Adhocracy
The final quadrant of the competing values model has its roots in the open systems model and contingency theories of management.  The open systems model recognizes that long-term organizational success requires attending to the external environment and adapting to changes in that environment. In recent years, the increasingly rapid rate of change in multiple aspects of the external environment has made organizational flexibility and the competencies covered in Module 4, Promoting Change and Encouraging Adaptation, particularly vital for organizational success today. 
Some people argue, however, that the phrase "organizational change" is an oxymoron because  there is often strong resistance to even the smallest changes that are proposed in organizations. This should not come as a surprise, when one considers that the internal process model with its related Control action imperative would support establishing change-resistant characteristics in their design and operations. 
Managers need to operate within the paradox of flexibility and control. Managers need to be adaptable and find ways to encourage employee creativity.  At the same time, managers must provide some stability the workplace and ensure that all necessary work is being done. Organizations cannot afford to 
 the work to focus on finding innovative ways of doing the work better. Instead, developing innovative approaches needs to become part of the way we work.   
Some students may become impatient as they study the principles of change management, because they will want definitive answers and procedures. Try to help them understand that definitive models for change do not exist.  That is to say, we have yet to observe an organization that manages change perfectly (and we are unlikely to ever see such an organization).  Everyone is learning to manage in the face of uncertain and opposing demands, and the tools and approaches that we share in this module must be customized to match the situations in which they are used. 
KEY PARADOXES AND CURRENT ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THE 
CREATE ACTION IMPERATIVE
Paradoxes
Most people hold paradoxical views about power and change. They want powerful leaders who seek to make improvements. At the same time, they distrust people who are powerful and often fear change. Power is easily abused, but without power and influence, managers can do little good for their people or the organization they represent. Power, like any tool, can be used to build or demolish.
Although true creativity and innovations are often regarded as flashes of spontaneous insight, to achieve those 
spontaneous
 insights, people must develop habitual practices that are anything but rapid or spontaneous.
Frequently when changes need to be made in organization, the more pressure we apply to make those changes, the less likely we are to succeed in implementing and sustaining those changes. Rather than helping us overcome resistance, using force often increases the power of that resistance.
Values and Ethics
Some changes that managers consider making may have broad ethical implications, such as closing down a plant or moving production facilities overseas.  When evaluating these changes, managers must consider all the impacted parties.  For example, while moving production overseas may hurt local employees, it may provide substantial benefits in the country where the new production facility is located. It may also make it possible for the company doing the outsourcing to continue competing in the marketplace, sustaining and even increasing employment in other parts of the firm.     
Diversity
Having a culturally diverse workforce can help spur innovation as new ideas and ways of thinking flow into organizations.  
Diversity in organizations can create new challenges. For example, individuals from different culture background may have different ideas about the best way to use power and influence or how to negotiate to obtain agreement and commitment.
Technology
As technology continues to change how we do our jobs, we can find many examples of how it helps spur innovation.  It is also possible, however, that we may allow existing technologies to inhibit innovation.  If someone proposes an innovative approach that cannot be supported by current technology they are likely to encounter substantial resistance to change. 
Rapid changes in technology that provide only incremental improvements in our performance may consume so much of our time and attention that we are unable to devote ourselves to seeking out more meaningful innovations.
Globalization
Globalization is, in itself, a major innovation as organizations begin to find new ways and new places to do business.  
Like all innovations, globalization has faced resistance.  Not everyone believes that increasing globalization is positive.  As organizations begin to operate on a global scale, they need to be able to address the concerns raised by individuals and groups that oppose globalization.
Some questions and statements to consider in this module are:
How can we prevent people from thinking of power as being a 
necessary evil
 or intrinsically bad?  Power and influence are necessary for good management. Managers who have no influence cannot support the people who report to them. They cannot be advocates for their needs, their ideas, or their interests overall. Power can be directed toward very positive ends if the people wielding it are looking out for the interests of others as well as their own. 
How do different ethical philosophies look at the use of power and influence? What happens when we try to separate discussions of power and influence from the ethical implications of their use?
Despite the fact that most people resonate with the phrase 
death-by-PowerPoint
 we still fall back on the same styles that make so many 
business
 presentations boring and forgettable. Why does this happen? What can we do to reduce the number of deaths by PowerPoint in our organizations?
How can appropriate some of the strategies we see in popular culture
film, music, and advertising
into the way we present and sell ideas? What do practices such as 
Tweeting
 and crowdsourcing suggest for how ideas will be sold in the future? Is the role of the 
expert
 no longer relevant today?
How can an organization foster creative thinking among employees while maintaining a coordinated work flow and ensuring task completion?
Under what circumstances is it undesirable for organizations to encourage employee creativity? 
Dig deeper into the relationship between habits
routines
and creative work. Certainly not all habits lead to creativity.  Are there some types of activities (e.g., physical exertion) that are more likely to result in bursts of creative energy and inspiration than others?
What is the relationship between fostering employee creativity and productivity? Many creative ideas never make it to the stage of innovations that are actually introduced to the market place. How can we be confident that our investment in establishing spaces for creativity in our organizations will pay off in the long run? 
In thinking about innovation and creativity in organizations, an interesting question to consider is 
how far out is too far?
  By their very nature, innovations are things that have not been done before, so it is impossible to know whether or not they will be successful.  While managers should encourage risk taking and trying new things, resources are limited, so difficult decisions will need to be made about when a potentially innovative new idea should be scrapped due to lack of positive results.
As noted at the beginning of the module, some people feel that innovation belongs only in a few areas of an organization.  What types of organizational designs and modes of managerial influence might help increase innovation across all parts of the organization?
Some people argue that 
win-win
 solutions are not really possible. What is necessary to create a win-win solution? What role does personality play in negotiation situations? For example, are some people so competitive that they will never feel that they have 
 if the other party is able to satisfy her interests in the negotiation? 
In talking about change in competency 5 of this module, we describe it as being largely resisted by employees.  Is this accurate?  What kinds of changes are welcomed by employees and resisted by upper management? 
Module 4, Competency 1:
Using Power Ethically and Effectively
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
ASSESSMENT	Who is Powerful?
PURPOSE:  	This activity allows students to examine their beliefs about power and influence based on their own relationships.  
KEY TOPICS:	power as the ability to influence; misconceptions about power.
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 min for individual activity; 20 minutes for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE
Direct students to read the instructions for this exercise in the text.  Ask students to respond in writing to each of the questions in the activity. 
Ask for a few volunteers to share their insights. As students share, encourage large-group conversation by asking questions such as the following:
How did you define power in order to complete the activity?
How is power related to dependence?
How does one increase one
s power?
To what extent do you agree with the Misconceptions about Power (Box M4.1)?  Are these truly misconceptions? Are they popular or deeply rooted in your organization?  If so, why?  
Conclude by asking students to summarize the main ideas that have emerged through this discussion.
VARIATIONS:	
Students might be directed to complete step 1 as homework before class.
The questions in the activity may be used as a basis for the full class discussion, rather than as an individual assignment.
Following Step 1, students could be placed into small groups to discuss the interpretation questions.
KEY POINTS:	
Being dependent on someone gives them power over you. 
Some people overestimate their level of dependency and thus feel more powerless than they actually are.  Other people overestimate how much power they have.
Power is in the eye of the beholder; if you act as though someone has power over you, then you have given them power over you.
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
ANALYSIS	
I Hope You 	Can Help Me Out
 Don Lowell Case Study
PURPOSE:  	The Don Lowell case study presents a typical instance of an attempt to use one's influence to do someone a favor.  Students analyze this case, exploring the uses of power and the strategies for maintaining and/or using one's power base.  Using the influence strategies discussed in the learning activity, students plan a strategy for achieving positive results.  Students focus on the discussion question: What would you decide to do and why?   An interesting discussion can be generated about values and choices, and what is appropriate in a situation like this.  Differences based on national culture are often especially interesting if you can bring them into the discussion.
KEY TOPICS:	Influence strategies; Influence versus manipulation and control; the ethics of power.
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 min to organize; 20-25 min for small group discussion; 20-25 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity, followed by work in 4-5 person groups and full class discussion.
SEQUENCE
Explain to students that in this activity they will see how sources and bases of power sometimes switch in different situations. Direct students to prepare a written response to questions 1 and 2.
Designate spaces in the room for each of the following categories of responses to question 2 in the activity: 
Those who would not get involved, and for any reason try to influence the admission process.
Those who would help only by clarifying the mother's need for admission.
Those who would do everything within their power to get the mother admitted.
Ask students to organize themselves by responses, by moving to the part of the room that matches their answer. Organize the class members into groups of 4-5 students, based on these responses. 
Ask each group to do the following:
Each member should discuss his/her responses to questions 2-7.  Ask them to be as specific as possible.  
Based on the individual answers, the group should discuss concrete methods and approaches that are being used by each character in the case study. Have the group make a list of the most obvious methods and approaches. 
The group should develop a list of alternative  methods and techniques that could be used to produce positive results, given the decision they made in question 2.
Select a person to report to the class. 
Invite the groups to present their analysis to the entire class. Encourage full class discussion by asking follow up questions.
Summarize the main ideas, using the key points below and the ideas that have emerged in the discussion.  Reiterate the positive and negative aspects of power in this situation. Clarify that this activity involves two elements:  
A value decision based on one's own perceptions of the situation and values relating to the uses of power.
Planning a strategy to reduce negative consequences and/or increase positive consequences of that decision.
For example, the groups which would not try to influence the mother's admission need to focus on how not to alienate Frank and how to avoid negative consequences.
The groups which would do anything to get the mother admitted need to focus on strategies to influence Sheila Hogan and to ensure that Frank "remembers" his promise.
VARIATIONS:	
Students may read the case and respond in writing as homework, followed by steps 2 through 5 in class.
While the instructions suggest that the homogeneous groups be formed according to student responses to question 2, you might create heterogeneous groups instead.  This option has the advantage of sparking lively debate in the small groups.  There is some merit, however, to allowing the homogeneous groups to strengthen their position, and have the lively debate in the full class discussion.
KEY POINTS:	
Power is the potential to influence.
Decisions on what to influence are often value issues, sometimes with ethical dimensions.
Understanding one's power/dependency relationships and one's power base helps increase one's options.
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
PRACTICE		The Big Move	
PURPOSE:  	This activity is a simulation, allowing role players to demonstrate the use of particular kinds of power.  Students also have the opportunity to identify and rate the effectiveness of the power exhibited by each player.  As such they practice giving and receiving feedback on the role.
KEY TOPICS:	Sources of power.
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 min to organize; 30 minutes for role play; 20 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Small group role-play activity in 4-person groups, followed by full class discussion.
SPECIAL NEEDS:	Role-play name tags or name cards, and the opening statement for each player (included following these guidelines)  Observations sheets, which follow these guidelines, may also be passed out if a group of students will be performing role play for the class to observe.
SEQUENCE
Direct students to read the instructions for this activity in the text.  
Organize the students into groups of 4 individuals.  Extra participants can serve as observers.  Have students in each group choose one of the five roles to play, and give out the name tags and opening statements.  Instruct them to read their own role description, but to refrain from reading the descriptions of others. 
Allow 30 minutes for the role-play, although suggest that they stop sooner if they feel that the exchange has come to closure for the small group.
Direct them to complete the questionnaire and engage in small group discussion.  
Conduct a full class discussion.  Additional questions may include:
How did you feel during the role-play?  Did you feel that you were "in control" and held a strong power base?  Why or why not?
Did the power behavior that you were given in your role match your real life power orientation, or was it one you seldom rely upon?  
Do you feel that options were available to you?  How did you develop them?
Summarize.  Ask students what they learned from this activity that will enable them to deal more effectively with power in relationships and in organizations.
VARIATION:	Conduct the role-play as a fishbowl activity, allowing the other class members to observe and to fill out the Assessing Power-Oriented Behaviors Questionnaire Sheet in the text.
KEY POINTS:	
Both personal and positional power strategies are practiced.
The most effective power-orientations are a product of the person, the position, the situation, and the context.
SPECIAL NOTE: This activity may take over 60 minutes.  As a fishbowl, it can be particularly effective if you have astute performers who can demonstrate the use of particular kinds of power.  While this activity takes a long time and certainly involves the class, it can be used at a time in the course when the instructor wants heavy involvement. What may be helpful at this point is that this module, being late in the text, may be covered late in the course.  If so, students may be experienced role players by the time they get to this activity.  If there have been good discussions in class on the sources of power, this activity can be an exceptional experience for students.
DESCRIPTIONS FOR THE FIVE ROLE-PLAY CHARACTERS AND AN OBSERVATION SHEET ARE INCLUDED ON THE FOLLOWING SIX PAGES
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
PRACTICE		The Big Move	
Kim Ingo: Client Financial Services
You have been with the department since its founding and have worked your way up from your original job.  During the 10 years that you have been a manager, you have been committed to the success of the department, have carried it through the lean years, and have contributed enormous energy toward making it the success it is today.  You understand the possibilities for expansion and growth that the move to a new location could offer the department; however, you are getting older and definitely feel reluctant to undertake the relocation of your family, the sale of your beautiful home, and the separation from your friends that the move would require.  Also, although you have not announced it yet, you intend to retire in a couple of years, and the department
s move could force you to retired before you had intended.
Your Power Personality.  Past Experience has shown that your positional power and the weight of your seniority can be used effectively to influence and control others.  Your long years of experience make you a credible authority on a variety of matters.  You know the workings of the department inside and out
You use occasional unpredictability as your ace in the hole, catching others off guard by either saying or doing what they least expect.  You tend to be calm and soft-spoken most of the time but have found that occasional outburst of simulated anger (and a penchant for spicy language) can often shock people into compliance.
Kim Ingo
s Opening Statements for Role Play
"As you know, I have been with the department since its founding and have spent 10 years as a manager.  I have always been committed to the success of the department and the productivity and reputation of the client financial services unit is excellent."
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
PRACTICE		The Big Move
Robyn Pinegar: Accounting
You have been with the department for several years, and you are in favor of the move because of the positive effect it will have on the distribution of services.  Going to a new office space will be much less expensive than trying to expand in Albany, even if you could find the available land.  The operating budget has increased in the past few years, but lack of expansion space will put a ceiling on the provision of services within a very short time.  The strength of the department
s financial position and the growth potential of the relocation would really be a boost to the department.
Your Power Personality.  You are very careful to have the hard facts about any question before you enter a discussion.  You are willing and able to research those facts to enable you to use them to counter emotional arguments.  You have a great deal of financial information at your disposal.  Since almost every activity in the department affects the bottom line, your auditor
s examination of every unit has given you a great deal of information about the efficiency of these units as well as an awareness of a number of skeletons in various closets.
You are soft-spoken, which requires others to listen carefully when you speak.  Your power tactic consists largely of strategic use of information, both financial and from your own personal experience.  Typically, you will let an opponent expound his or her views, then submit your information, pointing out that his or her argument is based on opinion whereas yours is based on hard facts.  
Robyn Pinegar
s Opening Statements for Role Play
"I have been manager of the accounting department for several years.  You know me as an objective, no-nonsense person who has the facts at hand or can get them in most situations."
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
PRACTICE		The Big Move
Carlos Armando: Stock and Bond Transfer
You joined the department 18 months ago, and the relocation plan is your brainchild.  You feel strongly that the move will be good for the department and that the services can be expanded only if some kind of move is made soon.  You would like to start influencing the department
s future in the most obvious way possible: by ushering in a new era of expansion.  The move is bound to force some early retirements and resignations among management personnel who want to remain in the Albany area.  You feel that this will revitalize the organization, especially with some of the go-getter replacement you have in mind.
You Power Personality.  You have found that few opponents can withstand the force and high energy level of your arguments.  You are not afraid to criticize someone or to interrupt at strategic points in a discussion.  In fact, you are rather rude.  You are not above instilling a little fear in others by reminding them that you control one of the important units of the department and have access to all evaluation data that point toward the need for expansion.  You are quick to pick out another
s weakness and capitalize on it.  Emotional arguments or personal considerations are very easy to attack.  You single-mindedly intend to get your way.
Carlos Armando
s Opening Statements for Role Play
"I realize that I have not been with the department for very long.  You know, however, that I come here with extensive corporate experience.  Obviously I favor the move as part of our necessary and revitalizing expansion effort."
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
PRACTICE		The Big Move
Lynn Stott: Human Resources
The department created a human resources unit some years ago, and you became its manager eight months ago.  You are in favor of the move because there could be a wealth of semiskilled and trainable people in the area surrounding the new location.  You know that re-staffing will be an enormous job, but this very requirement could be an opportunity for you to increase your somewhat tentative power position in the department by demanding that your unit
s staff be increased to handle the big job of hiring and firing caused by the move.  You personally look forward to moving away from Albany.
Your Power Personality.  You try to appear calm, cool, and level-headed. One way to get your point across in a debate is to repeat your statement or position
sometimes more than once, never raising your voice, and looking your opponent straight in the eye.  Your counter the arguments of others by appeal to logic: The most rational alternative must be the best one.  You do not attack your opponents directly but, rather, attack the logic of their arguments by questioning their research methods and basic assumptions.  You are open-minded to the extent that a more logical solution than your own may sway you.
Lynn Stott
s Opening Statements for Role Play
"As manager of the personnel unit, I have been giving a great deal of thought to this move and its implications.  While I have been manager for only 8 months, I have taken the position very seriously and make every effort to know the staff and our staffing needs."
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
PRACTICE		The Big Move
Chris Jacobs: Facilitator
The department
s director has retained you as an expert in group facilitation to help the task force reach a decision on whether to relocate.  Your goal is to help the group reach a consensus decision.  Failing consensus, the group will have to leave the decision to the director of the department.  
You have no personal investment in or position on the decision of whether to relocate.  You have interviewed the members of the task force and understand the various positions they seem to be taking on the issue.  
Chris Jacobs
 Opening Statements for Role Play
As you know, I have been hired to help facilitate your discussion.  To start things off, why don
t you all introduce yourselves.
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
PRACTICE		The Big Move
Role-Play Observation Sheet
Task force member
Influence Tactics Attempted
Sources of Power
Degree of Power
Kim Ingo: 
Client Financial Services
Robyn Pinegar: 
Accounting
Carlos Armando:  
Stock and Bond Transfers
Lynn Stott: 
Personnel
Chris Jacobs: 
Facilitator
Module 4, Competency 1: Using Power Ethically and Effectively
APPLICATION 	Building Your Power Base by Changing Your Influence Strategy
PURPOSE:  	This activity helps students to consider their present level of power and develop a plan for enlarging their power base, something that can benefit them at work and in other aspects of their lives.
KEY TOPICS:	Influence strategies and sources of power
TIME ESTIMATE:	5 min to explain; 15-20 minutes for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual homework activity followed by full class discussion
SPECIAL NEEDS:	Students will need the results from their assessment activity
SEQUENCE:
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text.  Remind them to use their results from the assessment activity to help them think about who is currently in their circle of influence.  
Review briefly major concepts of power and dependency as described in the text.  Describe feeling of powerlessness that may accompany dependency.
Provide students with your expectations for the written assignment. Explain how it will be graded, and remind them of the due date for the deliverable.
During class on the due date, invite each student to share his or her plan with a peer in the class seated close to them. Then encourage a full-class discussion by asking for 2-4 volunteers to share their plans with the full class. Ask additional discussion questions such as the following:
Why do some people at times resist the suggestion that they may have more power, or are able to marshal more power, than they realize?  What are some of the barriers to realizing our own empowerment?
What are some of the consequences of feeling powerless?
Do you believe that individuals can increase their power in organizations?  Why or why not?  Do some organizational structures make self-empowering efforts more difficult than other organizational designs?
What is it about this activity that is empowering - even before any planned action is taken?  
How are these empowering skills valuable to one's life and relationships in general (not just at work)?
KEY POINTS:	
Power/powerlessness is not unchanging.  Contrary to what we may sometimes feel, we can enlarge our power base.
Efforts to empower ourselves are enhanced by analysis and intentional planning.    
Module 4, Competency 2: 
Championing and Selling New Ideas
Module 4, Competency 2: Championing and Selling New Ideas
ASSESSMENT	The Presenter
s Touch: You May Have it But Not Know It
PURPOSE:  	This activity allows students to assess the extent to which they may already have strong presentation skills.  This questionnaire highlights characteristics that many students may not have associated with presentation skills.
KEY TOPICS:	Most people are better communicators than they realize.
TIME ESTIMATE:	5 min for individual activity; 10-15 minutes of full class discussion.
FORMAT:	Individual activity followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions and questions for this activity in the text. Tell them to answer the questions. Emphasize the importance of honesty in this assessment. 
Point out that most people have better communication skills than they realize, but also emphasize that everyone, even the best public speaker, can improve his or her skill and comfort-level for giving presentations.
Facilitate a full class discussion by asking questions such as the following:
Did your score on the questionnaire correspond with the level of presentation skills that you tend to attribute to yourself?  What surprised you about this activity?
Why do you think that many people feel that they have fewer presentation skills than they actually may have?
Why are good presentation skills important to the managerial role?
Through what means can people most effectively improve their presentation skills?
Summarize the main ideas that have emerged in the discussion, or ask 2-3 members of the class to summarize one or two key insights they have gained from the activity.
KEY POINTS:	
Many characteristics contribute to good presentation skills.
Effective presentation skills are not a matter of talent; they are learned behaviors.
Presentation skills are very important to managerial competencies.  
Good oral communication skills are even more vital than written communication in most American companies surveyed.  (Note:  This does NOT mean, however, that written communication skills are unimportant!)
Module 4, Competency 2: Championing and Selling New Ideas
ANALYSIS	Applying Communication Tools to Evaluate a Presentation
PURPOSE:  	This activity allows students to analyze presentations according to their own experience.  Additionally, they learn to identify the principles of the competing values framework for managerial communication and SSSAP as explained in the learning section.
KEY TOPICS:	CVFMC - Competing Values Framework for Managerial Communication; SSSAP: Set, Sequence, Support, Access, Polish
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 minutes for explanation; 90 minutes for outside work; 15-20 minutes for full class discussion.
FORMAT:	Individual activity followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. 
Discuss with students various options of presentations they may attend.  Perhaps a lecture is being scheduled in the community or on the campus that may interest them.  Again, remind them of the preference not to use a televised presentation. Remind students to be as unobtrusive as possible during the presentation.  
In addition, you might explain the possible effect on their assessment of their interest in the content of the presentation: we are sometimes biased when we are excited by a topic to be less critical of the presenter.
Explain your expectations about the deliverable for this assignment, including the following:
The format of analysis. It should be summarized in a 1-2 page report that comments on the CVFMC and SSSAP principles and responses to the questions in the activity.  
The grading expectations
The deadline.
On the due day, invite students to informally share one insight or highlight form their analysis with a peer or small group of students in the class. Then facilitate a full class discussion by asking questions such as the following: 
What was the relationship between your interest in the topic and your assessment of the presentation?
To what extent does your feeling of liking the presenter as a person (from what you can ascertain in the presentation) affect your judgment of the effectiveness of presentation?
Do you think it is possible to "separate the medium from the message?"  Why or why not?
Summarize the themes that have emerged in the discussion, or ask 2-3 the students to summarize major insights they have gained from the exercise.  
VARIATION:	
This individual activity could be assigned for completion in small groups or teams.  It can be especially valuable to have more than one person at a presentation to help identify situations where two listeners come to different conclusions about the speaker.  Some people may love the presentation, perhaps because they like the topic, while others may find it dull or boring. No presentation is likely to be universally admired.
Caution:  Care must be taken to prevent groups of students from attending lectures, classes, and other campus events, and being disruptive to the presenter by being obvious about making an assessment of the presenter's style.  This should not be too difficult in a college setting because many people are likely to be taking notes of a lecture.  It may be more difficult in other types of situations where note-taking is not the norm.  One way to make the process simpler is to prepare an observation sheet so that the students can check of boxes rather than spending a lot of time writing notes.  This can actually be added as part of the written assignment and you can evaluate the quality of the observation sheet that the students prepare.
KEY POINTS:	
Effective speakers vary widely in the way they adhere to SSSAP and other principles such as the CVFMC.
Effective speakers often present a mix of skills and their own personalities.
Most speakers' performance can be improved in some way; however, that may not prevent them from delivering an excellent presentation.
Module 4, Competency 2: Championing and Selling New Ideas
Practice	Improving a Memo Requesting Additional Personnel
PURPOSE:  	Students apply the CVFMC and SSSAP principles to a document that cries out to be streamlined and 
professionalized
 in both tone and content. 
KEY TOPICS:	SSSAP: Set, Sequence, Support, Access, Polish. 
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 minutes for explanation; 90 minutes for outside work; 10-15 minutes for full class discussion.
FORMAT:	Individual editing task followed by brief discussion in class
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Specifically, ask them to read the memo, making note of the elements of the message that should be retained
and perhaps sharpened in a revised version. 
Assign them to re-write the memo, applying the CVFMC and SSSAP principles. The revision will, of course, be shorter than the original, but it will also differ in its tone and clarity.  Tell them to email their revisions to you before the class in which you will follow up on this work.
After receiving the submissions, read through them and select 3-4 that represent exceptional work or an important principle. Obtain permission from the authors of these memos to show them in class, anonymously if needed.
In class, show the selected memos. Ask for comments from the class about what they notice in the revision. Discuss together how the examples effectively implement the principles. 
VARIATION: You may choose not to require a formal revision to be turned in. You can use the example of this terrible memo as a specimen for discussion how the tools taught in this competency can be used to streamline and polish organizational messages. However, the most beneficial use of the task is to have students work on a complete revision: students need more experience in writing and revising than they typically get in business programs. 	
KEY POINTS:	
This terrible specimen is the kind of message a person might write if he or she simply spilled her random thoughts and frustration onto the keyboard and hit the send button. This is a slightly embellished version of a real memo written in a real organization and sent to a group of co-workers. This sample also demonstrates some of the pitfalls of using email. 
Obviously, there is no best way to revise this document; however we think several points should be stressed in the follow up class discussion: 
The tone of the original message is unprofessional. The whining and critical passages need to be deleted. The writer is imposing personal frustrations and complaints that may be valid, but should not be written in a public document. (A good rule of thumb is, 
Assume anything you write in an email will show up on the front page of the local paper.
The message is also an unfocused ramble. 
The core of the message is that the department urgently needs to hire at least one more person. That point is made upfront (note the managerial sequencing) in the original, but the message than gets side tracked with complaints and other irrelevant points. 
The reasons behind the request are included, but not clearly. The 
support
 for the proposals needs to be strengthened and highlighted. A challenge with this revision task is that the more information is needed about the need behind the recommendation. 
The message should end with a clear request on what should happen next. One of the most frequent complaints about the emails and memos people receive at work is not knowing what the writer expects them to do with the information. 
The following memo is an example of an effective revision. 
Memorandum
To:			VP of Human Resources
From:		M. Petuous, Senior Marketing Administrator
Date:		
Subject:	Recommendation to hire additional staff
I feel strongly that our department needs to hire two additional staff members. We are short one full-time person who is on leave to the Strategic Planning Group, and the work load being taken on by our current staff continues to grow.  
We are under severe pressure from the central office to implement the new performance evaluation system beginning next quarter. This will not be possible without additional staff capacity. This new performance program, which is an urgent priority from top management, carries considerable risks if our HR practices are not followed carefully.
With our people under so much pressure, we risk losing some of our best performers if we cannot give them some relief from the workload. I realize how vital it is to keep our costs down, but I am convinced that we will incur greater costs from losing vital customers
and vital staff
if we do not act soon. 
I would like to discuss this matter with you at next week
s operations meeting. I can provide more detailed information and respond to any questions or concerns you may have. I greatly appreciate your giving this proposal your serious consideration. 
Module 4, Competency 2: Championing and Selling New Ideas
Application		You Be the Speaker	
PURPOSE:  	This activity provides students with the valued opportunity to prepare a presentation and to receive supportive feedback from peers.  It also allows students to practice giving supportive feedback to others.
KEY TOPIC:	SSSAP, CVFMP
TIME ESTIMATE:	Preparation time as homework; 90 minutes in class (six minutes per student); 10 min for full class discussion.
FORMAT:	Individual presentations to 4-6 person groups.
SPECIAL NEEDS:	Sufficient copies of the Peer Feedback Form (a copy is included following these instructions).
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Discuss with them various options of topics they might choose on which to prepare presentations.
If possible, schedule breakout rooms or spaces where the students can meet in small groups. Also prepare copies of the Peer Feedback Form, enough for each student to receive one form from each of his or her group members.
On the day of the presentations, organize the students into small groups.  The size of the groups is a function of how much time you wish to allow for in-group presentations.  The larger the groups, the greater the feedback, but the longer the activity will take. The time allotted for the group work should be consistent for each group member, usually 6 minutes plus a few extra minutes for feedback after each presenter.
Remind students of the guidelines for giving constructive feedback to others, as explained in Module 1. When giving this type of feedback, it is a good practice to give the speaker a chance to self-evaluate before offering their comments.  
Further, explain that it is more effective avoid being definitive and using phrases such as: 
You should have. . .
You were wrong to. . ..
   Instead, in giving constructive feedback, it is best to be more tentative, using such phrases as: 
To me this seems. . .
   or, 
You might want to consider. . .
Instruct students to do the following in their small groups:
Appoint a timekeeper(s). This individual should alert each speaker when there are have three minutes left, there is 1 minute left, and it is time to stop.
Determine the order of presentations
Have each member deliver the presentation. While the presentation is being delivered, the other members should be taking notes, using the Peer Feedback Form.
After each presentation, the members of the group should discuss the presentation and share feedback with one another using the Peer Feedback Form. No more than three minutes per presentation.
Bring the full class together. Facilitate a full class discussion by asking questions such as the following:
Before this activity you had a level of self-assessment regarding your presentation skills.  Has this activity altered that assessment?  If so, how and to what extent?
What surprised you in doing this activity?
What were your feelings when you gave feedback to your peers?
What was the most difficult aspect of completing this activity?  Why?
How did you find SSSAP to be helpful to you?
Ask 2-3 students to summarize for the class the key insights they have gained from this activity.
KEY POINTS:	
The CVFMC is a good way to think about the overall approach to take to a presentation.
SSSAP provides needed and helpful guidelines to preparing oral presentations about any subject.
Constructive feedback from peers is enormously helpful.  This is a resource which we can tap at any time.
It is important to be open to criticism, even when it is not offered in very positive ways.
Conversely, if you want your criticisms to be taken to heart, it is often necessary to offer them carefully and try to make it as palatable as possible, otherwise the listener is likely to become defensive and ignore your comments.
SSSAP is useful in helping people helping people learn to describe, create, and criticize.
Module 4, Competency 3: 
Fueling and Fostering Innovation
Module 4, Competency 3: Fueling and Fostering Innovation
ASSESSMENT	Your assumptions about creativity	
PURPOSE: 	This activity allows students to understand that they are probably more creative than they may realize.  The items often refer to attitudes and behaviors that students may not have previously associated with creativity.
KEY TOPICS:	Creative thinking; barriers to creative thinking.  Leads into a discussion of characteristics of creative individuals.
TIME ESTIMATE:	5 min individual activity; 15-20 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions and questions for this activity in the text. Explain that these questions will help them explore their personal assumptions about creativity.
Have students write out their responses to the following three interpretation questions after they complete the questionnaire:
Which of these statements did mark as true?  Why did you indicate true? Why do you think that the statements are actually false?
Do you consider yourself to be a creative person? Do you believe that you can develop your own capacity to be creative? Why or why not?
	NOTE: Research indicates that the major difference between creative people and uncreative people is that creative people think they are creative.
Facilitate a full class discussion based on the responses to the interpretation questions and by asking discussion questions may include:
Ask students to report their answers to the questions above.
Ask: How creative do you feel you are allowed (or encouraged) to be at school and in your work?
Ask: What factors influence our belief that we are or are not creative? For example, what happens in school to either increase or decrease our creativity?
Ask: Most of us recognize that children are highly creative. Why do people stop being creative?  What messages do people receive while growing up that give them the feeling that they are not creative? 
Summarize the major ideas that have surfaced in the discussion.
VARIATION:	After step 2, students could be placed into dyads for the purpose of discussing the interpretation questions.
KEY POINTS:
Creative abilities are not the sole domain of an elite group of artistically talented individuals.  Virtually all individuals have some measure of creative ability.
Creative ability can be developed and increased.
The first step to increasing one's creative ability is to acknowledge one's creative potential.
Creativity is useful for the manager, both in dealing with people issues and in addressing nonstandard problems or issues.
As will be learned in this module, many people have characteristics that they have experienced as undesirable, but which actually are indicative of creative ability.
Module 4, Competency 3: Fueling and Fostering Innovation
ANALYSIS	Creativity and Managerial Style
PURPOSE:	This activity allows students to reflect on how someone's managerial style can affect the extent to which employees will see themselves as creative.
KEY TOPICS:	Developing creative thinking in others; task motivation
TIME ESTIMATE:	10-15 min for individual activity;  10-15 min for group discussion; 10-15 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity, work in 4-5 person groups, followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE:
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Ask students to identify an individual for whom they have worked, either in or out of a workplace setting. Direct students to write the name of the individual, and to silently think about experiences with that person. They might want to jot down a few thoughts as they think about this person.
Next, tell them to check to the survey questions in the directions for this activity. 
Then have students write brief responses to the discussion questions for this activity.
Organize students into 4-5 person groups. Ask each group to generate a list of strategies in response to question 2 in the discussion questions for this activity (i.e. specific behaviors that helped them feel affirmed). Ask each group to appoint a spokesperson. You might provide the members of each group with a flip chart on which they can write their list.
Ask each group to report its list. Then facilitate a full class discussion by asking questions about the groups' listings.
Summarize the key points below as well as the points generated in the discussion.
VARIATION: Omit small group discussions and proceed directly from step 2 to 4.
KEY POINTS:	
One's managerial style can have a significant influence on employees' perception of their creative abilities, as well as on their demonstrated creative activities.
Reflection on how others' managerial styles have affected us can assist in our understanding of how we may wish to tailor our own managerial styles.
Module 4, Competency 3: Fueling and Fostering Innovation
PRACTICE	Encouraging Creative Thinking	
PURPOSE:  	This activity provides fun exercises that are designed to enhance students' abilities to associate previously unrelated concepts and to think differently about things.  With these exercises students have permission to break out of usual barriers to creative thought, and receive practice in doing so.
KEY TOPICS:	Creative-relevant skills.
TIME ESTIMATE:	5 min for setup and individual brainstorming; 10 min for full class discussion; 10 min for individual analogy activity; 10 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity and full class discussion.
SEQUENCE:
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Explain that these activities are intended to be fun and that there are no right or wrong answers.
Paper clip. Give students 3 minutes to list uses of the paper clip.  Call time when it expires. 
Ask each student to propose one idea, taking turns around the room. As the ideas are shared, write them on the board. Continue until all ideas are listed. 
Facilitate a brief discussion with the full class on breaking established thinking barriers by asking questions such as the following:
What constraints did you feel in your thinking as you tried this exercise?
Did you feel like you were able to break through your traditional thinking about how to use a paper clip? What helped?
How many ideas were we able to produce as a class, rather than as individuals, as we went through this exercise? If our intent is to maximize our creativity and the numbers of ideas, why was it important to reflect first individually, before sharing our ideas as a group?
Briefly review with students how to use analogies.  Give the students 10 minutes to identify and describe three problems from the text and to apply an analogy to each one.
Ask for volunteers to share their problems and applied analogies.  Make a list of the analogies that are used. Then, facilitate a full class discussion by asking questions such as the following:
How does an analogy 
break open
 our thinking about possibilities?
Did you experience a breakthrough in your thinking of any constraints to your thinking about your problem? If so, what happened? Why?
CAUTION:  	It may be necessary to guard against students who may compare themselves unfavorably with other students in the completion of these exercises.  Some people may be very creative, but are just not adept at thinking of a lot of different things "on the spot."  Furthermore, there are volumes of activities that accomplish the same purpose; this text had space only for a few.  Don't let students become discouraged!  Expanding one's creativity should be an affirming experience.
VARIATIONS:	
Rather than having students individually identify three pressing problems Have the students work together one or two problems that they share collectively as a class, then have them develop and share analogies only about these.
Assign a short paper for the Using Analogies exercise, responding to the instructions in the text.  Be sure to specify a length and due date.  
For steps 2 and 4, place students into 3-4 person groups or teams, charged with the generation of as many responses as possible.  Give the groups 5 minutes for step 2 and 10 minutes for step 4.
KEY POINTS:	
With a little effort and practice, creative skills can be developed and increased.
Often activities that enhance our creative skills are also fun to do.
Individual reflection before group discussion will always generate more quantity of ideas.
Module 4, Competency 3: Fueling and Fostering Innovation
APPLICATION 1	Import an Idea
PURPOSE:	In this assignment students 
import
 an idea or a practice they see being used in one domain or are of use into another area. This task will help students have direct experience with one of the most powerful modes of innovative thinking. 
KEY TOPICS:	Creative-relevant skills.
TIME ESTIMATE:	15 min to explain and answer questions; 60 min for outside work; 20 min for full class discussion
FORMAT: 	Individual writing task that can be followed by a group discussion.  
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Provide explanation if necessary.
Share an example of this 
importing
 process (some are described in text) and then ask students to think of 2-3 examples. 
Emphasize the point that the examples they come up with do not have to be patentable, break-through ideas. They can be modest, simple ideas that simplify a task or activity the students are familiar with.  
VARIATION:
This assignment can be given as a group discussion following five minutes of individual prep time for students to think of an example; however, the task is most effective if students have time to think of a good example and write a description of it. 
KEY POINTS:	
Creativity is less often an act of 
original thought
 than a process of borrowing an idea or a practice from one domain and importing into another. 
First you copy, then you create.
Stress the point made by David Kord Murray on p. 287 of the text: 
The farther away from your subject you borrow materials from, the more creative your solution becomes.
This process of deliberately trying to 
borrow
 ideas can stimulate our creative abilities. 
Module 4, Competency 3: Fueling and Fostering Innovation
APPLICATION 2		New Approaches to the Same Old Problem
PURPOSE:	With this activity students identify a problem which they have, and apply their creative skills to redefining it.
KEY TOPICS:	Creative-relevant skills.
TIME ESTIMATE:	15 min to set up the activity; 60 min outside work; 20 min full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Explain that their benefit from this activity will increase in proportion to the difficulty of the problem that they choose.
NOTE:  Sometimes a student
s most troubling and urgent problems are personal. Students neither may want to divulge such a challenge in an assignment, nor want this problem subjected to grading.  Yet, this activity may be most beneficial to students if they consider such problems. You may prefer to tell students that you will not collect this assignment for grading. You may also ask students to discuss these misgivings with you personally if they have them.
Set a date for the discussion/submission (if you intent to collect them) of the plans.
On the due date, facilitate a full class discussion by asking questions such as the following:
Would any of you be willing to share a summary of your experience with the class? What happened? What breakthroughs or insights did you achieve, if any? 
To the class as a whole, what did you find to be the most challenging aspect of this activity? What aspects of the activity really helped you to think differently? How might this activity actually help you?
Summarize the key insights or thoughts that have emerged from the discussion.
KEY POINTS:	
Creative thinking skills can defuse the troublesome nature of a problem.
In order to apply creative skills effectively to a problem, one must sincerely want to arrive at a solution to the problem.
Taking a different approach to a troublesome problem can generate information that may make the problem more manageable.
Module 4, Competency 4: 
Negotiating Agreement and Commitment
Module 4, Competency 4: Negotiating Agreement and Commitment
ASSESSMENT	How Effective Are You at Negotiating Agreement?
PURPOSE:  	This activity allows students to consider the extent to which they are comfortable negotiating in a variety of circumstances.  This activity not only permits a quick self-rating, but also demonstrates the various settings to which negotiation skills apply.  With this activity, students can understand that negotiation is an important life skill, not merely a remote concept to learn. 
KEY TOPICS:	Negotiating
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 min to setup; 15 min in small groups; 15 minutes in full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity, work in groups of 4-6, followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Ask students to write their responses to the questions in the margins or on separate paper.  Remind them to add any items that they think may be significant with respect to their attitudes about negotiating with others.
Organize students into 4-6 person groups.  
Ask them to do the following in their groups:
Briefly share a summary of their answers with one another 
Describe their personally feelings about moments when they have been involved in a negotiation.
In their groups, have students discuss the following questions and prepare to report the most important themes with the full class:
When is it appropriate/inappropriate to push the limits?  When does asking for special consideration work?  When doesn't it work?
How can you apply negotiating skills to your personal relationships?
How does effective use of such skills relate to our feeling good about ourselves?  Usually people feel more empowered and better about themselves if they attempt a negotiation and fail, as opposed to not attempting one at all.
Invite a member of each group to share a summary of the group
s discussion. Then, facilitate  discussion with the full class, based on the groups' responses.
Summarize the key themes that have emerged from the discussion. Also, highlight the main ideas from the key points below.
VARIATION:	In the interest of time, the activity can proceed from the individual response to the full class discussion, omitting step 2.
KEY POINTS:	
Negotiating skills are applicable to a wide variety of circumstances.
Negotiating skills have much in common with assertive communication skills.
Note that combative/aggressive techniques are not considered consistent with polished negotiation skills.
Using negotiating skills in various situations helps us to feel empowered and good about ourselves, especially in organizational settings.
Module 4, Competency 4: Negotiating Agreement and Commitment
ANALYSIS	Your Effectiveness as a Negotiator	
PURPOSE:  	This activity allows students to reflect on their past experiences with negotiating and to identify skills from this chapter which would help them to improve their negotiating performance.
KEY TOPICS:	Negotiating and four principles for Getting to Yes.
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 min to explain and answer questions; 10 min for sharing; 20 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE:
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Provide students with a few examples of possible situations they might use for the analysis.  
If you are having student do this as a written assignment, set a due date for the essay.
When students have completed this assignment, facilitate a discussion with the full class. To set the stage, ask the students to share the highlights from their memos with another student in the class. Then, invite a few students to share their highlights with the full class. Based on the ideas that surface, ask questions to help students identify specific ideas for improving their negotiating skills.
Summarize the ideas that have emerged through the discussion. Describe the key points listed below.
VARIATION:
Have students do this activity entirely outside of class, discussing their experiences and ideas for improvement with a team.  You may want students to submit a written paper describing what they learned from the experience.
KEY POINTS:	
We cannot avoid opportunities for negotiating.
Negotiating skills are related to conflict management strategies.
Module 4, Competency 4: Negotiating Agreement and Commitment
PRACTICE	Standing on the Firing Line		
PURPOSE:	Students practice the skills of negotiating in a public environment.  While students may not expect such situations, everyone can expect to encounter similar occasional conflicts.
KEY TOPICS:	Dialogue; principles of Getting to 
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 min to organize; 20-25 min for the activity; 20 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	6-8 person groups, arranged so that each person role-plays the two characters.
SEQUENCE
As described in the text, organize the class into 6-8 person groups.
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Assign the first two people in each group to role-play the characters, and everyone else in each group to role-play engaged audience members. Remind them of the rule of respect: no personal insults, no name calling, etc.
Establish a time frame for the activity. Use a stopwatch or clock to keep time for the class. Make sure that the students who will be on the 
firing line
 are ready to go. Shout, 
 to start the first round, and 
 when the time is up. Have the students switch roles and repeat. 
After the activity concludes, facilitate a full class discussion by asking questions such as the following: 
What nonverbal messages did you see in these presentations? What were the nonverbals? What did they communicate?
What strategies did you see in these presentations? How did you see these used?
What influence tactics were used? How did you see them in play?
What role did emotions play? 
Summarize the ideas that have emerged from the discussion, or ask students to share insights that they have gained from the activity. You may also wish to point out that (unfortunately) neither of these situations is unusual. 
VARIATION:
Conduct as a fishbowl activity.  To save time, you may want to use just one of the scenarios.  Although both situations involve ethical behavior, Karen Williams
 scenario is more complicated and may result in a more thorough discussion of the issues.
Provide students with similar recent examples that have received attention from the media in your area.
KEY POINTS: 
It is helpful to use negotiating skills when the issues are emotionally charged.
Dialogue and negotiating skills are critical when addressing areas of mutually opposing positions.
Emotions (including negative emotions) are the footprints of values. When people push back on an idea or decision, it
s often because they believe that something they value is under threat.
Another common source of resistance is how people feel, not about the decision or idea presented, but the way it is presented
the process. 
Module 4, Competency 4: Negotiating Agreement and Commitment
APPLICATION 	Negotiating at Work	
PURPOSE:	This activity allows students to evaluate their performance in a previous negotiating event in their lives.  
KEY TOPICS:	Principles of Getting to Yes 
TIME ESTIMATE:	20-30 minutes for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity.
SPECIAL NEEDS:	None.
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. Provide examples of the types of possible events they might wish to seek. 
Set a due date for the written essay.
On the day the assignment is due, invite students to summarize what they have learned in informal groups of two or three. Then facilitate a full class discussion, asking them to share what they have learned with the class. 
Summarize key points below.  You may also want to use this exercise to lead into the next competency, Implementing and Sustaining Change.
KEY POINTS:	
Negotiating skills have wide personal and organizational applications.
Negotiating skills are a needed and learned activity.  As with writing skills, good negotiating skills are not an inborn trait.
Module 4, Competency 5: 
Implementing and Sustaining Change
Module 4, Competency 5: Implementing and Sustaining Change
ASSESSMENT	Changes in My Organization	
PURPOSE:  	This activity demonstrates to students the point that the substance of a change is different from the methods through which it is implemented.  Students compare two changes in an organization: one that was successful, and one that was unsuccessful.  Students attribute the extent of success to either content of the change or to implementation procedures.
KEY TOPICS:	Designing change, implementing change, and three approaches to managing change.  
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 min to explain; 45 min for outside work; 20 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. 
Read the questions with the students, adding additional explanation as necessary. Perhaps you could point to your college or university as an organization, identifying and comparing a successfully implemented change and an unsuccessfully implemented change. Examples may range from changes in admissions standards to changes in degree programs.  
NOTE:  It may be the case that whether or not an implemented change is successful is a judgment call.  For instance, some previously all-women's colleges have become coeducational. Although apparently successful, some individuals regard such changes as unsuccessful over the long term because of concerns for declining enrollments.  The important thing for this activity is for students to use their judgment as to whether an identified change is successful. It is also helpful if they can articulate the criteria upon which they are basing their judgment.
Set a due date (preferably the next class session) for the students' analysis.
On the due date, facilitate a full class discussion by asking questions such as the following:
How difficult is it to separate the substance of a change from the method for implementing it?
How does the method of implementing a change affect our perception of the value of the change?
When do we decide whether a change has been successful? Does it have to be sustained for some amount of time?  If so, for how long?
KEY POINTS:	
It is important to distinguish between the substance of a proposed change and its implementation procedures.
The procedures for implementing change affect people's perception of the substance of the change, in terms of value, feasibility, and desirability.
A proposed change within an organization can be needed beyond dispute, but if its implementation is haphazard and not carefully planned, the proposed change can become vigorously opposed, and ultimately fail.
SPECIAL NOTE:	Students use this activity in order to complete the Application activity, "Planning a Change," later in this competency.
Module 4, Competency 5: Implementing and Sustaining Change
ANALYSIS	Reorganizing the Legal Division	
PURPOSE:  	This activity gives students an opportunity to analyze a case that explores issues related to frequently occurring changes in an office.  This case demonstrates some forces that lead to change and some forces that lead to resistance to change.  Students determine what specific problems exist, what strategies they might use to solve the problem, and examine a strategy for facilitating change.
KEY TOPICS:	Designing change, implementing change, and effective management of change.
TIME ESTIMATE:	5 min to organize; 15-20 min for group work; 20 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	4-5 person groups followed by full class discussion.
SEQUENCE:
Organize the students into 4-5 person groups. 
Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. 
Ask the students to do the following in their groups:
Follow the sequence of the case and reflection as outlined in the text. Read each section individually and, as a group, discuss the questions that follow the section.  
Do NOT proceed in reading the next section of the case individually until the full group is ready to move on.
Prepare shared answers to the discussion questions outlined in the activity.
Facilitate a full class discussion of the four discussion questions. For each question, ask one or two groups to share a summary of their answers. Ask students to be as specific as possible in their responses when describing what steps Paul should take.
Summarize the key ideas that have emerged from the discussion. Explain the key points below, along with your perspective about how these points were illustrated through the exercise.
VARIATIONS:	
Depending upon the size and nature of the class, the small groups may be omitted, and the entire activity may be conducted as a full class discussion.
The case may be assigned as homework, requiring written responses to each question throughout the case.
KEY POINTS:	
We can expect all changes to have driving forces and resisting forces.
It is important to understand the forces which lead to change and those which lead to resistance to change.
Module 4, Competency 5: Implementing and Sustaining Change
PRACTICE	Understanding Your Own Influence Attempts  
PURPOSE:	Help students see how their own efforts at influencing others (helping others change a behavior or an attitude) can be improved. The assessment exercise was relatively easy because it focused on describing how other change agents did well or poorly. Things become more personal when you require students to examine their own performance as change agents. To raise the ante, you are asking them to select the 
least successful interpersonal attempt
 they have made in the recent past.  If you can help them invest in the task, they will learn something. 
KEY TOPICS:	Influence, dealing with resistance, personal change. 
TIME ESTIMATE:	5 min for individual activity; 10-15 min for group discussion; 10-15 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity followed by full class discussion.
SPECIAL NEEDS:	The most important aspect of this exercise is your own effectiveness at establishing an appropriate 
climate set
 for students to reflect on the way others experience them as sources of influence. This is not an exercise that can be quickly tacked on to the end of a lecture, nor can it be done as an opening to a class session without first setting the tone for the exercise. 
SEQUENCE:
Set the stage by sharing an example of an unsuccessful influence effort from your own experience. Choose an example that is appropriate for public disclosure, but which is personally significant. You should model for the class how to take the process seriously when they select their own example. 
Ask the students to take two minutes to select their own 
least effective
 example. They may end up choosing something that doesn
t occur to them immediately. 
Organize the students into informal groups of 3-4. Instruct them to share their examples and answers with one another. Then ask them to prepare one answer from the group to share with the class for each of the questions. 
Facilitate a full class discussion. For each of the questions, ask one or two groups to share an answer. Ask additional questions that may be useful. 
Summarize the key ideas that emerge in the discussion. Explain the key points below.
VARIATION: 
You may also want to assign the students to write a 400-500 word discussion of the example they chose. A key insight that often comes from the exercise
particularly when students write about it
is that their framing of the experience changes. Their original interpretation of the event is that the other party was being a jerk, or just refused to change. Ideally, deeper insights emerge about their own effectiveness, or ineffectiveness as influencers: how did I help foster the resistance or defensiveness in the other party? How can I prevent it or at least minimize it in the future?
	KEY POINTS:	
What we push usually pushes back. Often, we help create the 
push back
 we experience from others. Thus, a key question is, 
How can I be firm without being coercive manipulative?
When reflecting on our influence attempts, it is helpful to ask ourselves the following questions:
Am I getting beyond the 
telling stage
 or am I relying too much on rational arguments without taking into account the assumptions held and emotions experienced by the other person? 
What can I do to convince the other party that I understand their needs, motivations, concerns, and interests?
Have I taken the time to reconsider whether or not what I am asking for is really what  would be best in this situation? Or am I sticking to my position and forgetting my real interests? 
If the other party does not believe that you understand their needs, motivations, concerns, and interests, you are probably not going to get anywhere with influencing them
Interpersonal influence requires courage. It
s easier to leave people alone and silently resent their behavior than it is to confront them about it in a constructive way. 
Module 4, Competency 5: Implementing and Sustaining Change
APPLICATION 	Planning a Change
PURPOSE:  	This activity allows students to plan the change that they identified in their Assessment exercise for this competency. By giving target date guidelines, the proposed change becomes more manageable for students.
KEY TOPICS:	Designing change and implementing change.
TIME ESTIMATE:	10 min for explanation; 30 min for outside writing; 20 min for full class discussion
FORMAT:	Individual activity followed by full class discussion.
SPECIAL NEEDS:	Students will need to refer to the change the identified in the Assessment exercise 
Change in My Organization
 that they completed for this competency.  
SEQUENCE:
 Ask students to read the instructions for this activity in the text. 
Remind students that they should use the change identified in the assessment activity for this module. However, you may want allow them to adjust their proposed change, making sure that the change they identified is both important to them and also feasible.  
If desired, assign a short paper in which students describe their experience and provide a due date.  Have them to respond in writing to the discussion questions.
NOTE: For some students, the most beneficial application of this activity would be to a personal problem.  However, they may not wish to submit their work on such a problem for a grade.  You may wish to have them turn in an abbreviated paper that shows how they have completed the assignment without disclosing the nature of the problem on which they are working.
On the day the assignment is due, facilitate a full class discussion.  If appropriate, ask 2-3 students to share their plans. Be sure to evaluate goals and plans using the SMART technique discussed in Module 3, Competency 2 
 Setting Goals and Objectives. Ask questions such as the following:
What challenges did you face when creating your plan?
What factors will determine whether you will actually put your plan into practice? What can you do to facilitate your success?
What are the long term implications of planning in this way?
What insights have you gained from this activity?
Summarize the key themes that emerge from the discussion. Explain the key points of the exercise as described below.
KEY POINTS:
Sometimes we want change, we do not resist change, and still we find it difficult due to what appears to be the overwhelming nature of the change.
Setting target dates makes proposed changes more manageable assists us in achieving them.
Changes in organizations can rarely be accomplished by a single individual because of the interrelated nature of organizational systems.
Module 4  Compete-Focused Competency Evaluation Matrix
PURPOSE:	This activity helps students begin working on their plan for mastery by assessing their current level of performance with respect to the five competencies in Module 4 and identifying steps they can take to become more effective. 
KEY TOPICS:	Review of competencies associated with the open systems quadrant and the Create action imperative.  Preparation for designing a plan for mastery to be used in the future.
TIME ESTIMATE:	5 minutes to introduce in class; 50-75 minutes outside of class
FORMAT:	Individual assignment
SPECIAL NEEDS:	None.
SEQUENCE:	
Describe the evaluation matrix activity at the end of the module in the text. Ask students to respond individually to the seven questions listed for each of the five competencies in Module 4.  
Explain that this matrix provides a summary of where they are with regard to the competencies associated with the open systems model and the Create action imperative.  It also provides an organized plan for self-improvement, with specific steps that can be pursued now, as well as after the conclusion of the course.
Remind students to keep this matrix. They will need it for the Application exercise in the concluding chapter of the text that asks them to focus on their future by preparing detailed strategy for mastery self-development plan.
VARIATION:
Because the evaluation matrix is a very individualized activity, instructors may not wish to take class time to discuss this activity. If, however, the class is small and the students are comfortable with one another, it may be beneficial to discuss these matrices so students can get additional ideas from other students for things they may wish to include in their plan for mastery.
KEY POINT:	
Becoming a master manager is a journey that requires us to regularly review our competencies and identify ways to improve our performance.
Instructor
s Manual for Becoming a Master Manager, 6th ed.
Module 4: Promoting Change and Encouraging Adaptability	 
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Chapter 9:  The Broker Role		Building and Maintaining a Power Base
Instructor
s Manual for Becoming a Master Manager, 5th ed.
Module 4: Promoting Change and Encouraging Adaptability	 
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